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GNU Free Documentation License

GNU Free Documentation License

   Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


   The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
   written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
   the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
   modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
   this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
   credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
   modifications made by others.

   This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
   works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
   complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
   license designed for free software.

   We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
   software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
   program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
   software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
   can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
   whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
   principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


   This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
   notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
   under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any
   such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
   addressed as "you".

   A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
   Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
   modifications and/or translated into another language.

   A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
   the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
   publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
   subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
   directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is
   in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
   any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
   connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
   commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding

   The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
   are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
   that says that the Document is released under this License.

   The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
   as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
   the Document is released under this License.

   A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
   represented in a format whose specification is available to the
   general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
   straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
   pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
   drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
   for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
   to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
   format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
   subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is
   not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

   Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
   ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
   or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
   HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include
   PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
   by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
   processing tools are not generally available, and the
   machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
   purposes only.

   The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
   plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
   this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
   formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
   the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
   preceding the beginning of the body of the text.


   You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
   commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
   copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
   to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
   other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
   technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
   copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
   compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
   number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

   You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
   you may publicly display copies.


   If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
   and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
   enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
   these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
   Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and
   legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover
   must present the full title with all words of the title equally
   prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in
   addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they
   preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can
   be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

   If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
   legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
   reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent

   If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
   more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
   copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
   a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
   Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
   general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
   charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
   option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
   distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
   Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
   until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
   copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
   the public.

   It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
   Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
   give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the


   You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
   the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
   the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
   Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
   and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
   of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

     * A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
       distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
       versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
       History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a
       previous version if the original publisher of that version gives
     * B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
       entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
       Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
       authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has
       less than five).
     * C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
       Modified Version, as the publisher.
     * D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     * E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
       adjacent to the other copyright notices.
     * F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
       notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
       under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum
     * G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
       Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license
     * H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     * I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add
       to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
       publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
       there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one
       stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
       given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
       Version as stated in the previous sentence.
     * J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
       for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
       likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous
       versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History"
       section. You may omit a network location for a work that was
       published at least four years before the Document itself, or if
       the original publisher of the version it refers to gives
     * K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
       preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
       substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
       and/or dedications given therein.
     * L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
       in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the
       equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
     * M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may
       not be included in the Modified Version.
     * N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
       conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

   If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
   appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
   copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
   of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
   list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
   These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

   You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
   nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
   parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
   been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a

   You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
   passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
   of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
   Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
   through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
   includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
   by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
   you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
   permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

   The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
   give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
   imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


   You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
   License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
   versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
   Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
   list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
   license notice.

   The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
   multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
   copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
   different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
   adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
   author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
   Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
   Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

   In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
   in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
   "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements",
   and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
   entitled "Endorsements."


   You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
   documents released under this License, and replace the individual
   copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
   that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
   of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
   other respects.

   You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
   distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
   copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
   License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that


   A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
   and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
   distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
   of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
   compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
   License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
   with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
   are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

   If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
   copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
   of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
   covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise
   they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.


   Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
   distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
   Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
   permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
   translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
   original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
   translation of this License provided that you also include the
   original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
   between the translation and the original English version of this
   License, the original English version will prevail.


   You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
   except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt
   to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and
   will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
   parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
   License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
   parties remain in full compliance.


   The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
   GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
   will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
   detail to address new problems or concerns. See

   Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
   If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
   License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
   following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
   of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
   Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
   number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
   as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

How to use this License for your documents

   To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
   the License in the document and put the following copyright and
   license notices just after the title page:

      Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
      under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
      or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
      with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
      Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
      A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
      Free Documentation License".

   If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
   instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover
   Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts
   being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
   recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
   free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
   permit their use in free software.

Marc SCHAEFER 2003-03-01